American Journal of Medicine, internal medicine, medicine, health, healthy lifestyles, cancer, heart disease, drugs

Reducing Hospital Toxicity: Impact on Patient Outcomes

doctor gives a physical examination of a patient

Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-hour oscillations in biologic processes that drive nearly all physiologic and behavioral functions. Disruption in circadian rhythms can adversely impact short- and long-term health outcomes. Routine hospital care often causes significant disruption in sleep-wake patterns that is further compounded by loss of personal control of health information and health decisions. We wished to evaluate measures directed at improving circadian rhythm and access to daily health information on hospital outcomes.

Methods

We evaluated 3425 consecutive patients admitted to a medical-surgical unit comprised of an intervention wing (n = 1185) or standard control wing (n = 2240) over a 2.5-year period. Intervention patients received measures to improve sleep that included reduction of nighttime noise, delay of routine morning phlebotomy, passive vital sign monitoring, and use of red-enriched lighting after sunset, as well as access to daily health information utilizing an inpatient portal.

Results

Intervention patients accessed the inpatient portal frequently during hospitalization seeking personal health and care team information. Measures impacting the quality and quantity of sleep were significantly improved. Length of stay was 8.6hours less (P = .04), 30- and 90-day readmission rates were 16% and 12% lower, respectively (both P ≤ .02), and self-rated emotional/mental health was higher (69.2% vs 52.4%; P = 0.03) in the intervention group compared with controls.

Conclusions

Modest changes in routine hospital care can improve the hospital environment impacting sleep and access to health knowledge, leading to improvements in hospital outcomes. Sleep-wake patterns of hospitalized patients represent a potential avenue for further enhancing hospital quality and safety.

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-Richard V. Milani, MD, Robert M. Bober, MD, Carl J. Lavie, MD, Jonathan K. Wilt, Alexander R. Milani, Christopher J. White, MD

This article originally appeared in the August issue  of The American Journal of Medicine.

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