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Accuracy and Efficacy of Hand-Held Echocardiography in Diagnosing Valve Disease: A Systematic Review

In recent years, advances in technology have enabled hand-held echocardiography (HHE) to generate high-quality 2-dimensional and color Doppler images. As these devices become smaller, simpler, and more affordable, the question of whether HHE can augment or replace auscultation as the primary mode of cardiovascular diagnosis has become increasingly more relevant. If widely implemented, HHE has […]

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PET/CT images showing increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake that was consistent with a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica. (A) Shoulders (blue arrows) and peritrochanteric bursae at hip joints (green arrows). (B) Greater trochanter (red arrows) and ischial tuberosities (yellow arrows).

Polymyalgia Rheumatica with Normal Inflammatory Markers

A 70-year-old man presented with pain in his shoulders, low back, and thighs for 1 year. He had difficulties when changing clothes, taking a bath, and getting out of bed because all these body movements aggravated the pain. He also experienced morning stiffness for 1 hour. Although his weight decreased by 5 kg because of loss […]

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Computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, revealing massive distention of the urinary bladder* (A) sagittal view; and hydronephrosis* (B) axial view; (C) coronal view.

Diabetic Cystopathy with Bilateral Hydronephrosis

A 40-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin 19%) with related peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and proliferative retinopathy presented with epigastric discomfort, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, nausea, and diminished urine output. His longstanding use of insulin was halted in the preceding month owing to termination of employment and loss of health insurance coverage. Examination revealed […]

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Selected cuts from magnetic resonance imaging of the spine.

Atypical Cause of Functional Decline in Parkinson’s Disease

A 74-year-old Chinese man with past medical history of Parkinson’s disease presented with rapid functional decline over 2 months. From being able to ambulate independently, he had become bedridden and was dependent in activities of daily living. On admission, he was also noted to be coughing on eating and had visual hallucinations for 2 weeks […]

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Histopathologic example of segmental arterial mediolysis. (A, B) Microscopic evaluation of an affected mesenteric artery with linear fibrin deposition at the adventitial–medial junction, medial gaps, and dissecting pseudoaneurysms. (C, D) At increased magnification, vacuolar degeneration of medial smooth muscle can be visualized. (A, C: hematoxylin and eosin stain; B, D: elastic van Gieson stain). Bars = 300 µm (A, B) and 100 µm (C, D). Reprinted from Tyler Hall E, Gibson BA, Hennemeyer CT, Devis P, Black S, Larsen BT. Segmental arterial mediolysis and fibromuscular dysplasia: what comes first, the chicken or the egg? Cardiovascular Pathology 2016;25(2):113-115, with permission from Elsevier.

Segmental Arterial Mediolysis: An Important but Often Overlooked Cause of Multi-Vessel Thrombosis

A 52-year-old man with a past medical history significant for hypercholesterolemia and systemic hypertension presented to an outside hospital with acute-onset, diffuse abdominal and bilateral flank pain without fever, constitutional symptoms of infection, or vomiting. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness was present, but abdominal guarding, peritoneal signs, and costovertebral angle tenderness were absent. Computed tomography […]

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