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Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2, and Myocardial Injury

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Data outlining the mortality and the causes of death in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and those with myocardial injury are limited.

Methods

During a 1-year period from January 2010 to January 2011, all hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were prospectively studied. Patients with at least one cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31, 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death.

Results

Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly among categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 31.7%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62.2%, myocardial injury 58.7%, and 22.2% in patients with nonelevated troponin values (log-rank test; P < .0001). In patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, 61.3% died from cardiovascular causes, vs 42.6% in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (P = .015) and 41.2% in those with myocardial injury (P < .0001). The overall mortality and the causes of death did not differ substantially between patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and those with myocardial injury.

Conclusions

Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury exhibit a significantly higher long-term mortality compared with patients with type 1 myocardial infarction . However, most patients with type 1 myocardial infarction die from cardiovascular causes in contrast to patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury, in whom noncardiovascular causes of death predominate.

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-Sascha Lambrecht, MD, Laura Sarkisian, MD, Lotte Saaby, MD, PhD, Tina S. Poulsen, MD, PhD, Oke Gerke, MSc, PhD, Susanne Hosbond, MD, PhD, Axel C.P. Diederichsen, MD, PhD, Kristian Thygesen, MD, DMSc, Hans Mickley, MD, DMSc

This article originally appeared in the May issue  of The American Journal of Medicine.

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