Tag Archives: urology
doctor holds tablet and talks to patient

Urine Tests for Chronic Hypokalemia: When in Doubt, Check Urine-Sodium-to-Chloride Ratio

Urine tests are very helpful for the diagnosis of renal and electrolyte disorders. However, ordering and interpreting urine tests properly have been an Achilles heel for many primary care physicians and residents. It is particularly difficult for chronic hypokalemia because the pathophysiological mechanisms behind it can be rather complicated. Traditionally, we use transtubular K+ gradient (TTKG) […]

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Blood in Urine: A Hard Nut to Crack

A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of intermittent painless macroscopic hematuria. She had a similar episode of macroscopic hematuria 5 years ago during her last pregnancy, which resolved spontaneously. Apart from this, she had no significant medical history. She was not taking any regular medications or supplements. On examination, she appeared well. She […]

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doctor uses tablet with patient

‘Urinary Tract Infection’ and the Microbiome

The current paradigm for managing uncomplicated “urinary tract infection” (“UTI”) is deeply flawed. “UTI” is ambiguously defined, and coupled with a belief that “bacteria are not normal inhabitants of the urinary tract,”1 the diagnosis often leads to unnecessary, harmful antibiotic treatment. Although bacteriuria identified by standard clinical cultures (which we will call standard bacteriuria) is central […]

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