Tag Archives: sleep
Sleep Apnea

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are frequent and can have serious consequences on patients’ health and quality of life. While some sleep disorders are more challenging to treat, most can be easily managed with adequate interventions. We review the main diagnostic features of 6 major sleep disorders (insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, sleep-disordered breathing, hypersomnia/narcolepsy, parasomnias, and restless legs […]

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Sleep Duration and Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease, Sudden Cardiac Death, Cancer Death, and All-Cause Mortality

Sleep duration has been shown to be associated with all-cause mortality; however, its relationship with cause-specific fatal events remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between sleep duration and risk of fatal coronary heart disease, sudden cardiac death, cancer-related death, and all-cause mortality. Methods Sleep duration was self-reported at baseline examinations performed between March 20, 1984, […]

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Actigraphy analysis methods and terms. Vertical lines represent the activity count in a 15-second epoch. Red markers at base of actigraphy bars represent epochs scored as awake by the software/algorithm. Light channel (yellow) removed from panels B and C in order to demonstrate activity patterns. (A) Hospitalized adult with long sleep bouts. Rest intervals (light blue background) are determined by the scorer, using decreased activity levels and light level changes, as periods where the subject is likely to be sleeping/trying to sleep. Sleep bouts within the rest interval are determined by the software's algorithm, which scores sleep or wake based on activity count thresholds in a particular epoch and multiple surrounding epochs; the sum total of these sleep bouts give the total duration of sleep within a particular interval. Please note the clear changes in activity level between daytime and nighttime, as well as the minimal amount of wrist activity during sleep for this individual. (B) Hospitalized adult with short sleep bouts. Here, sleep within the rest interval is characterized by multiple short sleep bouts (examples shown with arrows in this panel), suggesting substantial sleep fragmentation. (C) Acutely ill, hospitalized adult with Confusion Assessment Method–positive delirium. This individual was noted to become delirious overnight. Note the increased and prolonged activity during the night, as well as the lack of sleep. Daytime rest periods ≥30 minutes were designated as naptime rest intervals; naps were summed together with the nighttime sleep to determine the total sleep time for a 24-hour period. Gray area in this panel is time prior to the start of the device's recording.

Melatonin and Sleep in Preventing Hospitalized Delirium: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Studies suggest that melatonin may prevent delirium, a condition of acute brain dysfunction occurring in 20%-30% of hospitalized older adults that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We examined the effect of melatonin on delirium prevention in hospitalized older adults while measuring sleep parameters as a possible underlying mechanism. Methods This was a randomized […]

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Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Obese Hospitalized Patients (video)

Sleep-disordered breathing is a common sleep disorder. Recent studies have shown that hospitalized obese patients have a high likelihood of unrecognized sleep-disordered breathing. However, no systematic large study has so far evaluated the outcomes of a screening program. This study provides demographic, clinical, and outcome data from a screening program at a tertiary care academic […]

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woman staring at the alarm clock in bed

Short Sleep Duration & Impaired Glycemic Control (video)

Is insomnia linked to poor glycemic control? In this study, people who habitually slept less than seven hours per night had elevated glucose levels, as measured by morning oral glucose tolerance test. In this video, American Journal of Medicine Editor-in-Chief Dr. Joseph Alpert explains the clinical implications of the findings. Read the Research: Habitual and Recent […]

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Sleep Duration & Risk for Impaired Glycemic Control (video)

We examined how habitual sleep duration interacts with recent sleep (2 nights) to predict morning oral glucose tolerance test results. We hypothesized that short habitual and recent sleep durations would be additive for poor glucose control. Methods A biracial population of adults (n = 1559) without known diabetes and recruited from the workforce of 2 urban […]

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